Joint Entrance Examination (JEE Main)

The Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) Main is one of the most prestigious and competitive entrance exams in India, serving as a gateway for admission to top engineering and architecture programs in the country. It plays a crucial role in shaping the careers of countless aspiring engineers and architects. This article provides a concise introduction to JEE Main and delves into its historical evolution.

JEE Main is a national-level entrance examination conducted by the National Testing Agency (NTA), formerly the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). The exam is primarily designed to assess the knowledge and aptitude of candidates seeking admission to undergraduate engineering (B.Tech) and architecture (B.Arch) programs in premier institutions across India. JEE Main is the first step for candidates aspiring to gain admission to the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), National Institutes of Technology (NITs), and other reputed engineering colleges.

Before the inception of JEE, various regional and state-level entrance exams were conducted for engineering admissions. However, there was a need for a standardized test to simplify the admission process and ensure equal opportunities for students from different states. In 1992, the government introduced the Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) to streamline the admission process for IITs and other prestigious engineering institutions. Initially, JEE was conducted in two stages: JEE Main (for IITs) and JEE Advanced (for admission to IITs).

The All India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE) was introduced in 2002 to cater to the growing demand for engineering seats. AIEEE provided access to NITs and several other engineering institutions. JEE Main, as we know it today, has its roots in AIEEE. In 2013, the JEE underwent a significant transformation. AIEEE was replaced by JEE Main, which became the first stage of the two-tier JEE system. JEE Advanced remained the second stage for admission to IITs.

The National Testing Agency (NTA) was established in 2018, and it took over the responsibility of conducting JEE Main from CBSE starting from the January 2019 session. This marked a shift in the administration of the exam. Structure of JEE Main. The exam is conducted in two modes. Computer-Based Test (CBT): Paper 1 is conducted in CBT mode, consisting of multiple-choice questions. Pen-and-Paper Based Test (P&P): Paper 2 is conducted in P&P mode, involving drawing-based questions along with multiple-choice questions. Both papers assess candidates in subjects like Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry. Paper 2 also evaluates candidates’ drawing skills and aptitude.

JEE Main serves as a critical examination for engineering and architecture aspirants due to some reasons. It opens doors to prestigious institutions like IITs, NITs, IIITs, and several state engineering colleges. It promotes merit-based admissions, ensuring that the most talented students gain admission. JEE Main scores are often used by other institutions and private colleges for their admission processes. JEE Main has a high level of competition, making it a robust benchmark for evaluating candidates’ knowledge and problem-solving abilities. The Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) Main has a rich history of evolution, starting from a fragmented system of regional entrance exams to becoming a nationally recognized and standardized test. It continues to shape the dreams and careers of countless students who aspire to excel in the field of engineering and architecture in India. JEE Main’s historical journey reflects the commitment of the Indian education system to merit-based admissions and excellence in technical education.

Contents

Highlights

Exam ParticularsExam Details
Release of JEE Main 2024 NotificationSeptember 19, 2023
JEE Main 2024 Number of AttemptsTwo
Mode of ExamComputed Based Test (CBT)Pen and paper-based test (PBT) for Drawing section in BArch
Exam Duration3 hours for BTech/ BArch/ BPlan3.5 hours for BArch and BPlanning both4 hours for PwD candidates
No. of Papers and Total MarksPaper-1: BE/BTech (300 marks)Paper-2A: BArch (400 marks)Paper-2B: B.Planning (400 marks)
Total QuestionsBE/BTech: 90BArch: 82BPlanning: 105
Marking Scheme4 for each correct response1 mark will be deducted for each incorrect responseNo marks for unattempted questions

Joint Entrance Examination Application form

The JEE Main Application Form 2024 will be released soon by the National Testing Agency. The tentative JEE Main 2024 application form session 1 deadline is the first week of December. The official website for the JEE Mains application form 2024 is jeemain.nta.nic.in 2024. Once the application process begins, candidates will be sent to the JEE Main 2024 registration page. JEE Main 2024 will be held in two sessions, with NTA issuing separate application forms for each. Candidates who wish to appear in both sessions will be able to apply for both sessions concurrently during the JEE Mains 2024 Registration date session 1. Before applying for JEE Mains 2024, aspirants should review the JEE Main eligibility criteria 2024 to verify they meet all of the requirements. Filling out the JEE Mains 2024 form entails completing the registration, filling out the comprehensive application, submitting the requisite documents, and paying the application fee.

Syllabus

The syllabus for JEE Mains 2024 Physics is divided into two sections: Section A, which is the theory element and has an 80% weightage in the exam, and Section B, which covers practical components or experimental skills and has a 20% weightage in the exam. JEE Main syllabus 2024 for Physics covers courses from class 11 and 12.

JEE Main Syllabus 2024 Physics

UnitsTopics
Physics and MeasurementPhysics, S I Units, fundamental and derived units, technology, and society, least count, accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, dimensional analysis, Errors in measurement, Dimensions of Physics quantities, and its applications.
KinematicsThe frame of reference, Position- time graph, speed and velocity; motion in a straight line, Uniform and non-uniform motion, uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graph, average speed and instantaneous velocity, relations for uniformly accelerated motion, Vector, Scalars and Vectors. scalar and vector products, Unit Vector, Addition and subtraction, zero vector, Resolution of a Vector. Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Relative Velocity, Uniform Circular Motion.
Laws of MotionNewton’s First law of motion; Momentum, Force and inertia, Newton’s Second Law of motion, Impulses; Newton’s Third Law of motion. Applications of the law of conservation of linear momentum. equilibrium between opposing forces. Rolling, static, kinetic, and other types of friction. Centripetal force and its applications in the dynamics of homogeneous circular motion.
Work, Energy and PowerWork done by a constant and a variable force; work-energy theorem, kinetic and potential energies, and power. Conserving mechanical energy, conservative and neoconservative forces, and spring potential energy; elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
Rotational MotionCentre of the mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of rotational motion; Centre of the mass of a two-particle system, a moment of a force; torque, angular momentum, the moment of inertia, the radius of gyration, conservation of angular momentum and its applications. Applications of the parallel and perpendicular axes theorem Moments of inertia values for basic geometrical objects. Rigid body rotation equations of rotational motion.
GravitationGravitation is a universal law. Gravitational acceleration and its change with height and depth. Planetary motion according to Kepler’s law. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential; gravitational potential. Satellite orbital velocity, escape velocity. Satellites that is geostationary.
Properties of Solids and LiquidsHooke’s Law, Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship. bulk modulus, Young’s modulus, modulus of rigidity. Processes that are reversible and irreversible according to the second law of thermodynamics. Viscosity. Stokes’ law. streamline, terminal velocity, and turbulent flow. Reynolds number. Bernoulli’s principle and its applications. angle of contact, Surface energy and surface tension, application of surface tension – bubbles, drops, and capillary rise. temperature, Heat, thermal expansion; change of state, specific heat capacity, calorimetry, latent heat. convection, Heat transfer-conduction, and radiation. Newton’s law of cooling.
Thermodynamicszeroth law of thermodynamics, Thermal equilibrium, the concept of temperature. work, Heat, and internal energy. The first law of thermodynamics. Processes that is reversible and irreversible according to the second law of thermodynamics. Carnot engine and its efficiency.
Kinetic Theory of GasesWork done on compressing a gas, equation of state of a perfect gas The assumptions of kinetic theory of gases, as well as the concept of pressure. Degrees of freedom for temperature and kinetic energy: RMS velocity of gas molecules. Mean free path and the law of energy equipartition. Avogadro’s formula.
Oscillation and WavesPeriodic motion is defined by its period, frequency, and displacement as a function of time. Functions that occur on a regular basis. Simple harmonic motion and its equation; phase: spring oscillations -restoring force and force constant: energy in S.H.M. – Potential and kinetic energy; Simple pendulum – derived expression for its time period: Free, forced, and damped oscillations, as well as resonance. The motion of a wave. The speed of a wave, its longitudinal and transverse waves. For a progressive wave, the displacement relation. A mirror of waves is a reflection of the principle of wave superposition. Standing waves, basic mode, and harmonics in strings and organ pipes. Beats. Doppler The effect of sound
ElectrostaticsElectric charges: Charge conservation. Coulomb’s law forces between two point charges, superposition principle forces between many charges, and continuous charge distribution. Electric field lines: Point charge-induced electric field lines. An electric field is produced by an electric dipole. Torque on a dipole in a homogeneous electric field.   Gauss’ law and its applications to determine the field due to an indefinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, an infinitely charged infinite plane sheet, and an infinitely charged thin spherical shell. Electric potential and its computation for a point charge, an electric dipole, and a charge system; Equipotential surfaces are the electrical potential energy of a two-point charge system in an electrostatic field.   Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, series and parallel combination of capacitors, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates. A capacitor stores energy.
Current ElectricityThe flow of electricity. The rate of drift. Ohm’s law. Resistance to electricity. Different materials’ resistances. Ohmic and non-ohmic conductor V-l properties. Electrical power and energy. Electrical resistance. Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependency of resistance; Temperature dependency of resistance. The Electric Cell and Its Applications Internal resistance, potential difference, and emf of a cell, as well as a series and parallel combination of cells. Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications are discussed. Bridge made of wheatstone. The Metre Bridge. The potentiometer concept and its applications.
Magnetic Effect of Current and MagnetismBiot-Savart’s law and its application to a current-carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applicability to an indefinitely long current carrying straight wire and a solenoid. Force on a moving charge in a magnetic and electric field that is uniform. Cyclotron. In a uniform magnetic field, the force on a current-carrying conductor. Ampere definition: the force between two parallel currents carrying conductors. A current loop in a uniform magnetic field experiences the following torque: The current sensitivity of a moving coil galvanometer, as well as its conversion to an ammeter and voltmeter. The magnetic dipole moment of a current loop as a magnetic dipole. Magnetic field lines, the Earth’s magnetic field, and magnetic elements are all examples of magnetic elements. Substances that are para-, dia-, and ferromagnetic. Magnetic permeability and susceptibility. Hysteresis. Permanent magnets and electromagnets.
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating CurrentFaraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. Eddy currents and induced emf: Lenz’s Law. Both self and mutual inductance exist. Alternating currents, peak and RMS alternating current/voltage values: Impedance and reactance: Series LCR circuit, resonance: Power in alternating current circuits, wattless current. Transformer and alternating current generator.
Electromagnetic WavesTransverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Electromagnetic spectrum (infrared, visible, radio waves, microwaves, ultraviolet. X-rays. Gamma rays), Applications of e.m. waves.
OpticsLight reflection and refraction formula for planar and spherical surfaces. Total internal reflection and its uses. Deviation and Dispersion of light by a; prism; Lens Formula. Magnification. The Power of a Lens. Two tiny lenses make contact. A microscope’s and an astronomical telescope’s magnification powers (reflecting and refracting).   Optics of waves The principle of Huygens and the wavefront. Huygens’ idea is used to explain reflection and refraction rules. Interference is demonstrated via Young’s double-slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources, and sustained interference of light. Diffraction created by a single slit, with the greatest width in the middle. Resolution of a microscope and an astronomical telescope. Polarization, plane-polarized light, Brewster’s law, plane-polarized light applications, and Polaroid are all examples of plane-polarized light.
Dual Nature of Matter and RadiationRadiation has a dual nature. There is a photoelectric effect. The observations of Hertz and Lenard; Einstein’s photoelectric equation: the particle nature of light. The De Broglie connection exists between matter waves and particle waves. Experiment with Davisson and Germer.
Atoms and NucleiExperiment with alpha particles; Rutherford’s model of the atom; Bohr model, energy levels, and hydrogen spectrum. Atomic masses, nucleus composition and size, isotopes, Radioactivity- the qualities of alpha, beta, and gamma particles/rays; radioactive decay law. The mass-energy relationship, the mass defect, the binding energy per nucleon and its fluctuation with mass number, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion are all discussed.
Electronic DevicesSemiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics of LED. the photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; 1-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. characteristics of a transistor, Junction transistor, transistor action: transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR. AND. NOT. NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
Communication SystemsSky and space wave propagation, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere. Need for modulation. Bandwidth of signals, Amplitude and Frequency Modulation. Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only), the bandwidth of Transmission medium.

Eligibility

Eligibility criteria for the Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) Main are essential for candidates planning to appear for this highly competitive entrance exam in India. Meeting these eligibility requirements is a prerequisite to be considered for admission to various undergraduate engineering and architecture programs in prestigious institutions across the country. Here are the key eligibility criteria for JEE Main:

1. Academic Qualifications:

For B.Tech/B.E. Programs: Candidates must have passed their 10+2 (or equivalent) examination with Physics and Mathematics as compulsory subjects.

For B.Arch Programs: In addition to Physics and Mathematics, candidates must have studied Chemistry as a compulsory subject at the 10+2 level.

Minimum Marks Requirement: Candidates should have secured a minimum aggregate score in the qualifying examination. This aggregate score requirement may vary from year to year and depends on the category (General, OBC-NCL, SC, ST, PwD) to which the candidate belongs.

2. Year of Qualification:

Candidates must have passed their 10+2 or equivalent examination in the year immediately preceding the year of the JEE Main examination. For example, if the JEE Main exam is in 2023, candidates should have passed their 10+2 exams in 2022 or 2021.

3. Number of Attempts:

A candidate may take the JEE Main exam a maximum of three times in a row. There are no limitations on the total number of attempts allowed in a calendar year, though.

4. Age Limit:

As of now, there is no specific age limit to appear for JEE Main. However, candidates must check the age eligibility criteria of the institutions they wish to apply to, as some colleges may have age restrictions.

5. Subject Combinations:

For B.Tech/B.E. programs, the compulsory subjects in the 10+2 examination are Physics and Mathematics. Chemistry is also essential in many cases.

For B.Arch programs, in addition to Physics and Mathematics, Chemistry is a compulsory subject. Additionally, candidates must have a valid score in the NATA (National Aptitude Test in Architecture) or JEE Main Paper 2 (B.Arch) for admission to B.Arch programs.

6. Aadhaar Card Requirement (Previously):

In the past, candidates were required to provide their Aadhaar card details for JEE Main registration. However, this requirement was relaxed, and other government-issued IDs became acceptable for registration.

Paper pattern      

Paper 1

ParticularsBTech/BE
Exam modeOnline (Computer based)
Number of sections and subjects3 (Chemistry, Physics, and Mathematics)
Duration of exam3 hours (180 minutes) 4 hours for PwD candidates
Type of questionsMCQs: 4 options Numerical Value Questions, whose answers are to be filled in as a numerical value only
Section A (MCQ)Mathematics: 20 
Physics: 20
Chemistry: 20
Section B (Numerical Value)Mathematics: 10  
Physics: 10
Chemistry: 10 In Section B, candidates have to attempt any five questions out of given total10 questions.
How many questions in JEE Mains90
JEE Mains Total Marks300 marks
Language of paperKannada, Malayalam, Assamese, Bengali,  Marathi, Odia, Punjabi, English, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu in addition to Hindi, and Gujarati

Paper 2)

ParticularsBArch Exam PatternBPlanning Exam Pattern
Exam modeOnline (Mathematics and Aptitude) and offline Drawing testOnline
Number of sections and subjects3 (Mathematics, Drawing, and Aptitude)3 (Aptitude, Mathematics, and Planning Based Questions)
Duration of exam3 hours3 hours
SectionsMathematics (Part I) 20 MCQ and 10 Numerical Value Questions will be given
Aptitude Test (Part II) 50
Drawing Test (Part III) 02
Mathematics: 20 questions and 10 Numerical Value Questions Aptitude: 50 Planning Based Questions: 25
Number of questions82105  
Type of questions in question paperMathematics and Aptitude: Objective-type questions Drawing: Questions to test the candidate’s drawing and sketching skillsMathematics and Aptitude Planning-Based Questions and Multiple-Choice Questions
Total Marks of JEE MainsTotal will be 400 marks (Drawing section will be of a total of 100 marks, marking of every question will be given along with it)400
Language of paperKannada, Malayalam, Assamese, Bengali, Marathi, Odia, and Urdu in addition to Hindi, English, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, and GujaratiKannada, Malayalam, Assamese, Bengali, Marathi, Odia, and Urdu in addition to Hindi, English, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, and Gujarati